Le magistrat du TEPJF a précisé que les juges agissent au bénéfice de la société, en réglant les différends
Au cours de l’émission « de El arTE de juzgar », la journaliste Beatriz Pagés a mis en avant la valeur de la responsabilité, dans le cadre de l’exercice de l’ensemble des fonctions sociales
Le respect des principes éthiques de la part des juges, au moment de prononcer une sentence permet de résoudre les différends et de garantir la justice sociale, ainsi que la paix avec dignité, a assuré Flavio Galván Rivera, magistrat au Tribunal Electoral du Pouvoir Judiciaire de la Fédération (TEPJF).
Au cours d’une discussion organisée avec la journaliste Beatriz Pagés, dans le cadre du programme « El arTE de juzgar », retransmis sur « Plataforma Electoral », le canal de télévision du TEPJF sur Internet, il a dit que les juges doivent avoir présent à l’esprit ces principes, au moment de transformer l’ensemble des lois qui constituent une norme froide en une justice vivante, afin de parvenir à un bénéfice effectif pour la société.
M. Galván Rivera a expliqué que la justice est non seulement l’art de résoudre les différends, en prononçant une sentence, mais que celle-ci requiert aussi création, intuition, perception et sens commun de la part des juges, car, dans le cas contraire juger cesserait d’être un art en se convertissant en une fonction mécanique. « Le juge qui n’a pas de sens commun et qui n’a pas l’intuition de ce que doit être la justice, ne peut être juge », a-t-il déclaré.
Le magistrat a considéré que pour parvenir à la justice sociale et renforcer le système démocratique, l’éthique doit s’imposer non seulement dans la fonction exercée par le juge, mais aussi dans la conduite des politiques, des communicants, ainsi que pour toutes actions réalisées dans la vie quotidienne.
En ce sens, il a assuré que les communicants, en réalisant leur travail d’information, et les serviteurs publics, en travaillant en faveur de la société, doivent suivre les enseignements et l’idéal de justice de Don Quichotte, le personnage de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, dans le roman de L’ingénieux hidalgo don Quichotte de la Manche, qui, conduit par la bonté et l’idéalisme, cherche à aider les défavorisés et les infortunés.
Les juges, les journalistes et les politiques doivent exercer leur fonction avec responsabilité
Pour sa part, Beatriz Pagés a fait référence au fait que l’éthique doit être la ligne directrice, le cœur et la colonne vertébrale de ce qui fait un avocat, un journaliste et un politique. « A moi, il ne me semble pas que l’éthique est contraire à la politique ; a contrario, je crois qu’on ne peut faire de politique ou qu’on ne doit pas faire de politique, ni exercer le pouvoir, en dehors de l’éthique », a-t-elle soutenu.
Dans ces conditions, elle a considéré que, dans le contexte actuel, où le pays fait face au crime organisé, le grand défi pour les partis politiques face aux élections de 2015, est de sélectionner leurs candidats après un contrôle et une observation minutieuse de leur conduite, de leur trajectoire et de la vocation qui les animent, en vue d’obtenir une charge élective populaire et de servir le peuple.
Etablissant un parallèle entre les principes que défendent les juges et ceux que prend sous sa tutelle le personnage de Cervantès, Don Quichotte, elle a affirmé que le juge doit avoir la capacité, le talent et la stature éthique pour adapter ses décisions et ses sentences, aux grands principes contenus dans la loi et dans la justice.
Elle a dit que les juges protègent les droits de l’homme, guidés par les principes de la démocratie que sont la liberté, la justice, l’équité, la transparence et la dignité humaine, à la manière de Don Quichotte, chevauchant Rossinante, avec son bouclier et sa lance.
Elle a déclaré en outre que les journalistes aussi respectent des règles éthiques qui, même si elles ne sont pas établies dans la Constitution, sont formulés dans le décalogue de cette profession, dans le but de contribuer à renforcer la paix sociale.
Le programme « El arTE de juzgar » est un espace qui permet aux magistrates et aux magistrats du Tribunal électoral, tous les jeudis à 10h30, de converser avec un invité du monde culturel et des arts, autour d’un principe ou une valeur, liés à son travail juridictionnel.
The Court determined en banc that horizontal parity cannot be implemented, at this moment, in the nomination of municipal slates because it would threaten the certainty principle before the progress of the electoral process.
Coalitions in Querétaro have the same obligation that political parties have to guarantee nomination of women under equality conditions.
The Superior Chamber of the Electoral Court of the Federal Judicial Branch (TEPJF) confirmed several judgment that approved gender parity criteria on formulas of deputies candidatures and members of municipal councils of Querétaro, State of México, Nuevo León and Sonora for the 2014-2015 electoral process.
In the case of Querétaro, the Court supported en banc the judgment of Regional Chamber Monterrey, which ordered the Electoral Institute of said entity that the necessary will be implemented to guarantee gender parity on candidatures to mayor, as well as the integration of the congress and the municipal councils.
Guidelines for registration of candidatures in the State of Mexico were endorsed
On the other hand, the Superior Chamber endorsed the guidelines for registration of candidates to different popular election offices for the 2014-2015 electoral process in the State of Mexico. In this case the Court determined en banc that before the progress of the ongoing electoral process, unconstitutionality of them cannot be estimated, just because the scope of parity horizontally was not anticipated, since the local regulation recognizes this principle, also certainty an legality of electoral processes should be guaranteed as well as self-organization of the parties.
The Court confirmed en banc the validity of registration of candidatures at mayors in Nuevo León
In other matters, the Superior Chamber confirmed the validity of registration of candidatures to mayors in Nuevo León, when considering that in this case, the application of the horizontal criteria cannot be legally accepted in this moment, since due to the progress of the electoral process it would infringe the safety and legal certainty principles.
With that, the Court sitting en banc dismissed the claim of María Elena Chapa Hernández in the sense that it guarantees women the exercise to the office in 50% of the 51 municipalities that will be renewed in Nuevo León.
The latter because the constitutional and conventional obligation of establishing the measures necessary to guarantee gender parity at the nomination of candidatures to any popular election office as a measure to empower the fundamental right to the suffrage in two direction is recognized, but it should be made as long as it is legally possible, and measures implemented should be according to the constitutional systems and procedures.
Gender parity criteria in registration of candidatures in Sonora is approved
On the other hand, the Superior Chamber confirmed the ruling issued by the Electoral State and Citizen Participation Institute of Sonora, that approved the application approach of gender parity and alternation on application forms of candidates to deputies by the relative majority principle, as well as proportional representation and slates of municipal councils for the ordinary 2014-2015 election.
Coalitions have the same obligations as parties to guarantee gender parity
In other matters, the Superior Chamber confirmed the modification of the ruling issued by the General Council of the Electoral Institute of the State of Queretaro, related to the approach to guarantee gender parity on the nomination of formulas of candidates to local deputies and members of municipal councils in said state.
The Court confirmed en banc the judgment of Regional Chamber Monterrey that determined that coalitions have the same obligations as political parties to guarantee equity and ensure gender parity at registration of candidatures.
On his participation, Justice Flavio Galván Rivera mentioned that it is about a complex topic and highlighted the relevance of gender equality on integration of municipalities. “This equality principle taken from the Constitution until the 70’s, was already in the civil legislation from the end of the 20’s, 19th century in the State of Oaxaca in the civil legislation of the 19th century in Nayarit, Baja California later, and it has been incorporating little by little into the political-electoral legislation”, he mentioned.
The Justice questioned if the principle and equality rule are met on the integration of the slates when there is an equal number of candidate women and equal number of candidate men, arguing that this constitutional mandate is complied with in the case of candidates to local or federal congresses. And in the case of municipal councils, when the state regulation states it, it is complied with, as well as it is not considered in the regulation but the electoral authorities have stated it, in compliance with a constitutional principle that considers article first and fourth of the Constitution, it is complied with even when there is no equality or that horizontal parity.
Justice Pedro Esteban Penagos López underlined that we should consider the progressiveness principle to guarantee substantive parity, in this case, it is necessary to provide legal certainty to electoral processes, from that it is not convenient to change the way in which slates of municipal councils should be integrated one month before the Election Day.
On that regard, Justice Salvador Nava Gomar said that the integration of the slates for municipal offices do not show violations to human rights, since even when affirmative measures have been established to guarantee gender parity, they are not a right by themselves. He mentioned that constitutional reforms oriented to guarantee gender parity have been summarized in the judgments of this Court.
Meanwhile, Chief Justice Constancio Carrasco Daza highlighted that in this moment gender parity in the election of municipal councils is not considered as an affirmative temporary but permanent measure coming form the constitutionality block.
On his view, he considered it necessary that the electoral authorities subsequently in the case of municipal councils should read it like that.
Justice Manuel González Oropeza said that municipal councils are the corner stone of all government system, thus it is necessary to guarantee the access of women to council offices under equality conditions before men and prevent discrimination. Parity among genders, he explained is a constitutional right and a guarantee of the government form that should not be circumscribed on vertical parity but also horizontally.
During his participation in the occasion of the discussion of the block of cases about parity, Justice María del Carmen Alanis Figueroa pronounced regarding reconsideration recourses 85/2015, 90/2015 and accumulated, and 97/2015, corresponding to the register of candidatures for congresses and municipal councils of Nuevo León, Sonora and the State of Mexico.
First, the justice recognized that drafts contribute in a double sense to the understanding built by the Superior Chamber about parity: (i) regarding the recognition of legitimate interest of women to fight standard and authority act and of political parties that impact their legal area, without the need of said breach being directly against a person or group of persons; and (ii) about the restate of the approach of the Superior Chamber about the enforceability of the parity principle as materialization of the right to substantive equality between men and women, vertically and horizontally, since this contributes to issuing judgment on this topic.
However, she voted against the drafts because in spite of recognizing the parity principle and its lack of application to the specific cases, the proposals stated the irreparably of breaches committed against the rights of plaintiff women, submitting as an excuse the progress of the electoral process. The Justice emphasized that her dissent lies on that leaving the effectiveness of human rights to the mercy of factice matters that, in this case, were not unbeatable, results on a denigration of justice. Therefore, she submitted that the proposed approach implies the creation or recognition of a period that is not clearly determined, where the breach to the human rights would result unimpugnable, by granting to formalisms the sufficient strength to prevent the repair of breaches to human rights and constitutional principles.
Finally, she concluded that unfortunately the so overwhelming recognition of the scopes of parity, contrasts with the negative that it benefits women in the ongoing electoral process of Sonora, Nuevo León and the State of México, since that contributes to illegally extending the historic sub representation of women and to postpone the construction of a truly inclusive democracy.
The executive director of Métrica Pública said that wider citizen participation is required to monitor the performance of the authorities.
During the broadcast of the show Justicia electoral a la semana, he mentioned that cancelling the vote on the Election Day does not resolve the phenomena.
Accountability and building a solid institutional system focused to prevent and sanction impunity contribute to fight corruption, assured Gustavo Rivera Loret de Mola, executive director of Métrica Pública.
Interviewed at the show Justicia electoral a la semana, broadcasted by Plataforma Electoral, the Internet television channel of the Electoral Court of the Federal Judicial Branch (TEPJF) and by Canal Judicial, he mentioned that corruption breaks the social covenant between society and the government, because trust is lost, individualism promoted and behavior distorting all social relations are generated.
He explained that the recent constitutional reform, that created the National Anticorruption System, strengthens the institutional system that has the objective of preventing impunity, discouraging corruptive behavior, sanctioning those already occurring and preventing from happening again.
During the broadcast of the show hosted by journalist Guadalupe Juárez, he commented that democracy is consolidated through the construction of an accountability culture and the strengthening of the Legislative Power to become a real counterweight of the Executive.
Loret de Mola specified that Mexico has progressed a lot in transparency, but not in accountability. “Accountability is not the same as transparency,” he held. In this sense, he said that it is not enough making certain information public, but it is necessary to explain it and justify it.
The Executive director of Métrica Pública pointed out that in order to fight corruption in Mexico a wider citizen participation is necessary; therefore, it is necessary to reinforce surveillance efforts by monitoring performance of officers.
Accountability, he held, should involve all areas of the civil society, the media and the government.
“In the United States, a common practice is that a Presidential candidate be told, ’20 years ago you voted against this, now you are in favor’. Here in Mexico, we cannot do that, because nobody monitors,” he added.
He pointed out that in Mexico during electoral processes, several candidates have illegal campaign financing in exchange of support when taking office, such as contracts and direct awards.
He said that annually corruption in our country costs from 10 to 20% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while at home level it costs one thousand 500 pesos.
Loret de Mola underlined that because of situations such as this, “Mexico is increasingly outraged and we are in an highly delicate inflection point where this discomfort may become depression or outbreak of violence.” With that, he considered it necessary that said anger is changed into something constructive such as the surveillance towards authorities.
Cancelling the vote does not resolve corruption problems
He warned that cancelling the vote on the Election Day does not contribute to bringing citizens and government together, or eradicating corruption, it only benefits the party that can easily move voters.
“There are no laws in Mexico that stipulate that if cancellation reaches certain percentage there is a consequence for candidates. Additionally, it is a very selfish decision to express said outrage,” he said.
The Court reversed en banc the resolutions of the General Council of INE that determined alleged irregularities on the income and expenses reports of pre-candidates.
The Electoral Institute of Jalisco was binded to register candidates to mayors of Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos y Jilotlán de los Dolores.
The Superior Chamber of the Electoral Court of the Federal Judicial Branch (TEPJF) determined restoring candidatures to local deputies and district chief in the Federal District and the municipal councils of Jalisco.
In the first case, the Court reversed the resolution of the General Council of the National Electoral Institute (INE) that determined the loss of registration of candidatures of the 2014-2015 ordinary electoral process, for the alleged irregularities on the detailed report of the review to pre-campaign reports, as well as income and expenses reports of pre-candidates.
When resolving several challenging means presented by aspirants to said popular election offices, by Citizen Movement and the Democratic Revolution Party (PRD), the Court determined en banc that in all cases the guarantee of hearing of the plaintiffs was breached, since they were not notified about the alleged irregularities related to the omission to present the reports of the pre-campaign where they participated.
Justices binded the responsible authorities to report, from the notification of the judgment, to plaintiffs about the alleged omission they incurred in, with the objective that citizens present by themselves or through the party, the corresponding report and, if admissible, reinstate their registration as candidates.
When taking the floor, Justice María del Carmen Alanis Figueroa pointed out that the cases resolved were highly important since they were finally considering the registration or not of candidates and the sanctions given to several political actors failing to comply the law. She said they were new resources analyzing new attributions of administrative authorities.
Alanis Figueroa warned that cases vary from one and other, and because of that, it is important to consider all questioning stated, in a way that the different moments of the electoral processes are allowed.
In turn, Justice Flavio Galván Rivera commented that it is about a relevant procedure topic. Given the new National Electoral System, the General Council of the National Electoral Institute is the agency that determines the compliance or incompliance of the rules on fiscalization, including accounting for pre-campaign reports.
“No matter if the pre-campaign is to integrate the list of candidates to municipal councils of the Republic or if it is to elect candidates to local congresses or the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District, or for governor of a State or federal deputies by both principles,” she said; regardless of the office motivating the electoral procedure, the report shall be presented before the National Electoral Institute.
Meanwhile, the Justice Manuel González Oropeza said that the fundamental obligation of presenting the report corresponds to political parties; however, pre-candidates as jointly liable have to be summoned to the procedure established by the Institute.
On that regard, Chief Justice, Constancio Carrasco Daza pointed out that pre-candidates are jointly liable for complying with campaign and pre-campaign report; therefore, communication between the party and the candidate on the presentation of the reports is necessary.
Justice Pedro Esteban Penagos López submitted that with this resolution “going for a substantive justice”.
Justice Pedro Esteban Penagos López said that with this resolution “we are going for a substantive justice.” He said that anyone who is deprived from his/her rights should be granted the guarantee of a hearing. He said that if the political party does not present the report, the pre-candidate should be required because hes/she is the one who would be affected by not achieving the corresponding candidature.
In turn, Justice Salvador Nava Gomar argued that the electoral authority couldn’t leave candidates without registration when they do not know the failures incurred by the parties that represent them or support them, such as the extemporary delivery of income and expenses report. “The right to know is a fundamental part of the due process and this constitutional justice should be implemented to guarantee this right,” he said.
Restoring candidatures in mayors of Jalisco is ordered
In other matters, the Electoral Institute and Citizen Participation of Jalisco is binded, and if there is not other legal impediment, to register Luis Antonio Bravo Plascencia, as candidate to mayor of Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos and to Juan Carlos Andrade Magaña at Jilotlán de los Dolores.
In the case of Andrade Magaña, there is no failure to present the pre-campaign report and in the Bravo Plascencia, there was no evidence of exceeding the expense ceiling for this period.
In this last case, the Court reversed en banc the sanction about cancelling the registration of Bravo Plascencia for the alleged irregularities found on the detailed report of the review of income and expenses pre-campaign reports, proving that Citizen Movement unduly included expenses on services for two consulting companies, as well as the prorate of a billboard contracted by said party, which exceeded the authorized ceiling.
During the public session, the Court resolved en banc 25 trials for the protection of the citizen’s political-electoral rights 3 constitutional electoral review trials and one appeal, making a total of 29 challenging means.
The Superior Chamber makes independent candidatures effective it establishes the obligation of the authorities to take the necessary measures that guarantee the possibility of seeking an office without the support of a political party
Electoral authorities should adopt the necessary measures in order to honor the human right to be elected to popular election offices without the support of a political party, stated the Superior Chamber of the Electoral Court of the Federal Judicial Branch (TEPJF).
When issuing Thesis V/2015, the highest electoral jurisdictional agency stated that before the lack of secondary law on independent candidatures, the administrative-electoral authorities are compelled to adopt the necessary measures for citizens to be able to compete without being nominated by a political party.
Thesis with the title “Independent Candidatures. The absence of secondary law, compels administrative-electoral authorities to adopt measures to compete at the elections”, considers the content of the Constitution, of the American Convention on Human Rights and of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The jurisdictional criteria approved in the March 24 public sitting of this year, states that the exercise of the human right to be elected for popular election offices may be done through independent candidatures considering the constitutional framework, conventional and the international electoral laws.
In this way, the Electoral Court of the Federal Judicial Branch maximizes citizens’ political-electoral rights.